Bình luận về Hồ Chí Minh và Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam

Bình luận về Hồ Chí Minh và Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam

Thursday, 14 June 2012

6 * RICHARD E GREEN * TIỂU SỬ


o Chi Minh was born on 19 May 1890 in a small straw hut in the town of Kimlien, in the province of Ngh**e** An. Ho Chi Minh was born under the name of Nguyen Van Thanh, which means Nguyen, who will be victorious. His father was involved in the revolution to push the French out of Indo-China. After Ho's mother was thrown in jail for stealing weapons from a French barracks, Ho's father gave him and his brother Khiem jobs working as messengers for the revolutionists.
Ho first really learned about the French Revolution when he was fifteen years old. He was going to a French high school in HuŽ. He could not understand how a country with the expression "Liberty! Equality! Fraternity!" could oppress Indo-China. At the time, the French were building their own schools(like the one Ho was going to), hospitals, roads and technology improvements to the area. While he was taught that they were trying to improve the area, Ho taught the other students that they were only doing this for the French people and their relatives. When the French were living well, they would attack Indo-China. He also taught the other students of how Vietnam has been invaded constantly for the past 2,000 years and that France was no different. He was getting this information from banned books that he was able to get hold of. He was kicked out of school one day in 1910, after being caught giving out copies of banned papers. He then went out in search of a job. Ho found a job as a teacher in the small village of Phan-Thiet, which was in Cochin-China.
In 1914 Ho got a job as a cook in the Carlton Hotel in London. While working there he noticed how Asian workers at the hotel were being over-worked and under-paid, so he started a Workers' Association to help improve working conditions in England for Asians.
In 1921, Ho Chi Minh began a group known as Le Paria, which means "The Outcast." Le Paria's goal was try to stop the French colonialism in Indo-China. After finding out that the French sent spies to follow him, Ho just laughed and sent them his daily schedule, to make their lives easier:
"Morning: from 8 to 12 at the workshop.
Afternoon: in newspaper offices (leftist, of course) or at the library.
Evening: at home or attending educational talks.
Sundays and holidays: visiting museums or other places of interest.
There you are!"
Ho Chi Minh was soon known by many people from Indo-China as their main spokesman. They were amazed by a person who was not afraid to laugh at the French, yet stood up for the people of Indo-China. Many people thought that Ho Chi Minh was no more then a legend!
Ho Chi Minh decided to take the pseudonym name Nguyen-O-Phap, which meant Nguyen who hates the French, but changed it to Nguyen Ai Quoc, which was Nguyen the Patriot, since it was a little bit less offensive.
When Sun Yat-sen, leader of China's nationalist army, died in 1925, Chiang Kai-shek of Moscow was put in charge with military strategist Mikhail Borodin. Chiang chose Ho to be Borodin's advisor and interpreter. Ho took this position, but began to secretly plan Indo-China's first communist organization, set in Canton. Most of Ho's followers were young Annamese rebels who were sick of being in the Vietnamese Nationalist party and their leader, Pham Boi Chau. The group set up Chau by hurling a bomb at the governor of Indo-China's car. Chau disappeared after this.
Ho was soon accused of taking a bribe from the French, in exchange for revealing Chau's where-abouts. Chau was said to be exucuted, but really died naturally while in jail. Pointing this out got Ho out of trouble for a while.
Reports came in 1933 that Ho died while in jail. This caused great mourning in Vietnam, until rumors began that people had seen Ho in different areas. These rumors were true. Somehow Ho had escaped, or secretly been set free. Ho was reunited with his party and laid low for a while.
Because of the plans going on between Russia and Germany in 1939 regarding Fascism, most of the Communist groups, including the ICP, were being hunted down and the remaining members imprisoned. Many of the ICP members were put in jail.
Vietminh got support from with the French who were secretly working for London, as well as support from the American CIA. However, this was beginning to make a big dis-trust between Vietnam and China.
The clouds are setting the peaks aglow
The peaks are hugging the clouds -
I wander alone, roused to feeling
Scanning the distant southern sky
I am thinking of my friends
He reconized the writing as Ho's, and knew that he was still alive. Ho's imprisionment was very harsh. He was constantly being moved and faced mean guards, mosquitos, very little food and drink and the choice of water to drink or water to wash each day. In the meantime, Vietminh was becoming a success. They were the only group that the government of Vietnam left alone to do what they wished. They were currently planning an attack on Japan. Chang Fa-kwei, leader of China, offered to free Ho if he would give him copies of the reports on Japan and France. If Ho agreed, China would also supply $100,000 each month to help Vietminh destroy Japan. Ho agreed.
With Thomas Jefferson and the Decleration of Independence in mind, Ho decided to establish a Democratic Republic in Vietnam. The following is a portion of Ho's speech of independance - "A people who have courageously oppsoed French domination for more than eighty years, a people who have fought side by side with the Allies against the Fascists during these last few years - such a people must be free and independant."
Now that Ho could only control North, he decided to try to build it into a Communist State and to inprove the lifestyle of North Vietnam. He started a program that would give all children ten years in school.


Books I used to help write this biography
Ho Chi Minh - Legend of Hanoi - by Jules Archer
© 1971 The Macmillian Company, published in New York
Ho Chi Minh: A Political Biography - by Jean Lacouture
© 1968 Random House, published in New York
We the Vietnamese - Voices from Vietnam - edited by Fran**c**ois Sully
© 1971 Praeger Publishers, published in New York
China in Revolution - by Vera Simone
© 1968 Fawcett Publications, published in Greenwich
Vietnam - A Dragon Embattled - by Joseph Buttinger
© 1967 Frederick A. Praeger, published in New York


Links to Other Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam Pages
Another Ho Chi Minh Biography - http://www.idbsu.edu/surveyrc/Staff/jaynes/marxism/bios/minh.htm
A Ho Chi Minh Page - http://www.eecs.uic.edu/~vnguyen3/hcm.html
A Ho Chi Minh Site(in a foreign language) - http://www.his-j.com/a-sgn.htm
Ho Chi Minh & Land reform - barbarism of a revolution - http://www.middlebury.edu/classes/vietnam/0235.html
Letter from Ho Chi Minh to Lyndon Johnson - http://www.shss.montclair.edu/english/furr/hotolbj.html
Communism in Vietnam - http://www.pacificu.edu/up/as/vb/comm.html

No comments:

Post a Comment