Bình luận về Hồ Chí Minh và Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam

Bình luận về Hồ Chí Minh và Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam

Monday, 21 January 2013




Philosophy and religion always focus on the equal opportunities for everyone in society . How to create an equal society, and how to help poor people? Many songs, poems and stories were written to call charity for poor people. That is the way of humanitarianism, or socialism.
The English word socialism (1839) derives from the French socialisme (1832), the mainstream introduction of which usage is attributed, in France, to Pierre Leroux, and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud; and in Britain to Robert Owen in 1827, father of the cooperative movement.
Socialism refers to any one of various theories of economic organization advocating public or worker self-ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods, and a society characterized by equal access to resources for all individuals with a more egalitarian method of compensation.(Wikipedia)
According to the Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, the term socialist was first used in 1827 by the utopian socialist Robert Owen and socialism (in French) in 1832. The terms communist and communism were first used by the utopian communist Étienne Cabet (in French) in 1839.

The Wikipedia Encyclopedia defines Communism (from Latin: communis = "common") as a socioeconomic structure and political ideology that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property in general. In political science, however, the term "Communism", usually spelled with the capital letter C is often used to refer to the Communist states, a form of government in which the state operates under a one-party system and declares allegiance to Marxism-Leninism or a derivative thereof, even if the party does not actually claim that it has already reached communism.The first reason is the difference between the socialist movements, each movement has each philosophy.The second reason is the contradiction in Marx, Engels and Lenin's works.

On the one hand, at first, it seems that Marx and Engels disdained socialism. In 1847, in Preface to the 1888 English Edition of the Communist Manifesto,Friedrich Engels said "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not." Engels wrote in 1894, in a preface to a pamphlet of his articles that had been published in the organ of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Volksstaat: It will be noted that in all these essays, and particularly in the aforementioned one, I consistently do not call myself a Social Democrat, but a Communist. Both Marx and Engels consistently criticized the ideology and program of their contemporary proponents of what is still called socialism. Marx's famous Critique of the Gotha Program was a landmark in their campaign to replace socialist programs with communist ones. In Communist Manifesto, when praising Communism, Marx criticized the socialist movements such as Reactionary socialism, Bourgeois Socialism, Critical -Utopian Socialism.
As Marx put it in his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844:
Socialism is man's positive self-consciousness, no longer mediated through the annulment of religion, just as real life is man's positive reality, no longer mediated through the annulment of private property, through communism. . . . Communism is the . . . actual phase necessary for the next stage of historical development in the process of human emancipation.
On the other hand, Marx, Engels and Lenin tended to use the terms communism and socialism interchangeably. They used the terms Communism and Socialism to mean precisely the same thing. They used “Communism” in the early years up to about 1875, and after that date mainly used the term “Socialism.” There was a reason for this. In the early days, about 1847-1850, Marx and Engels chose the name “Communism” in order to distinguish their ideas from Utopian, reactionary or disreputable movements then in existence, which called themselves “Socialist.” Later on, when these movements disappeared or went into obscurity, and when, from 1870 onwards, parties were being formed in many countries under the name Social-Democratic Party or Socialist Party, Marx and Engels reverted to the words Socialist and Socialism. For Marx, socialism is first stage, communism is second stage of the communist revolution . In Critique of the Gotha Program, when stating the right of the producers, he pointed out two phases of the communist revolution:

And so, in the first phase of communist society (usually called socialism) "bourgeois law" is not abolished in its entirety, but only in part, only in proportion to the economic revolution so far attained, i.e., only in respect of the means of production. "Bourgeois law" recognizes them as the private property of individuals. Socialism converts them into common property. To that extent--and to that extent alone--"bourgeois law" disappears (.. . ). But the scientific distinction between socialism and communism is clear. What is usually called socialism was termed by Marx the “first”, or lower, phase of communist society. Insofar as the means of production becomes common property, the word “communism” is also applicable here, providing we do not forget that this is not complete communism. The great significance of Marx's explanations is that here, too, he consistently applies materialist dialectics, the theory of development, and regards communism as something which develops out of capitalism. Instead of scholastically invented, “concocted” definitions and fruitless disputes over words (What is socialism? What is communism?), Marx gives an analysis of what might be called the stages of the economic maturity of communism.

It is difficult to discern the true differences between socialism and communism. Some general points distinguishing the two concepts, however, can still be identified.
One point is that socialism generally refers to an economic system, while communism generally refers to both an economic and a political system. As an economic system, socialism seeks to manage the economy through deliberate and collective social control. Another difference between socialism and communism is that communists assert that both capitalism and private ownership of means of production must be done away. Socialists, however, see capitalism as a possible part of the ideal state and believe that socialism can exist in a capitalist society.


Socialism as a theory of government and social reform may be said to have begun with the ancient Indian, Chinese and Greek philosophers. Buddha (563 BC to 483 BC) opposed the cast system of his society. Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) dreamed of a wealthy country, an equal society and a peaceful world:
A competent provision was secured for the aged till their death, employment for the able-bodied, and the means of growing up to the young. They showed kindness and compassion to widows, orphans, childless men, and those who were disabled by disease, so that they were all sufficiently maintained. Males had their proper work, and females had their homes. They accumulated articles of value, disliking that they should be thrown away upon the ground, but not wishing to keep them for their own gratification [2]
Socialistic ideas can be traced back to Plato's Republic. Plato (427-347 BC), a Greek philosopher, spoke of the inequality in the world. When the oligarchy declines into a democracy, the poor people killed some rich, and expelled the rest. They set up a new constitution in which everyone remaining has an equal share in ruling the city. They give out positions of power pretty much by lot, with no notice of who is most fit for what role. In this city the guiding priority is freedom. Everyone is free to say what they like and to arrange their life as they please. (. . .). In the perfect State wives and children are to be in common; and that all education and the pursuits of war and peace are also to be common(..). (houses) are common to all, and contain nothing private, or individual; and about their property. [3]

In Plato's "Laws", he also dreamed of a peaceful society in which "the private and individual is altogether banished from life":
The first and highest form of the state and of the government and of the law is that in which there prevails most widely the ancient saying, that "Friends have all things in common." Whether there is anywhere now, or will ever be, this communion of women and children and of property, in which the private and individual is altogether banished from life, and things which are by nature private, such as eyes and ears and hands, have become common, and in some way see and hear and act in common, and all men express praise and blame and feel joy and sorrow on the same occasions, and whatever laws there are unite the city to the utmost-whether all this is possible or not, I say that no man, acting upon any other principle, will ever constitute a state which will be truer or better or more exalted in virtue.

In the 16th century, in his Utopia, Sir Thomas More proposed forms of communal property ownership. In addition, some religious groups of the early modern period advocated forms of communism, just as had certain of the early Christians. A lot of the socialists around the world came to the USA to establish some socialist communes such as the Mennonites (in Pennsylvania in 1683); Jean de Labadie ( Maryland in 1683 ); Ann Lee in 1774, New York). Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright, (in 1787 in New Lebanon, NY.). Francois Emile Babeuf (1760-97), formed a Masonic-like association of disciples called Babouvistes. His group had about 2,000 members. In April, 1796, Babeuf wrote his Manifesto of the Equals, which was published under the title Analysis of the Doctrine of Babeuf. He wrote:
"No more private property in land, the land belongs to no one ... the fruits of the earth belong to everyone ... Vanish at last, revolting distinctions of rich and poor, of great and small, of masters and servants, of governors and governed. Let there be no difference between men than that of age and sex. Since all have the same needs and the same faculties, let there be only one education, one kind of food. They content themselves with one sun and air for all; why should not the same portion and the same quality of food suffice for each of them..."

Robert Owen (1771-1858) published his views in the Rational Quarterly Review. Many of his principles were derived from the writings of Weishaupt. For instance, Weishaupt wrote that the aim of the Illuminati, was "to make the human race, without any distinction of nation, condition or profession, one good and happy family."

Other settlements like this were started in America and Scotland, and communism was born. In 1817, a group of German separatists, led by Joseph M. Bimeler, settled near the Tuscarawas River in Ohio. In 1819, they were incorporated as the Society of Separatists of Zoar. All property was held in common; factories and shops were managed by an elected Board of Trustees. After Bimeler's death in 1853, interest declined, and the town dissolved in 1898. There were other communistic settlements, such as Harmony, PA (1805); Nashoba, Tennessee (1825); the Cooperative Store at Toad Street (1844); and the Cooperative Society of Oldham (1850), set up by the Rochdale Pioneers, which also failed.

In his philosophy, known as the "New Christianity," Comte Henri de Saint-Simon (1776-1825), French philosopher and socialist, advocated the placing of all property and people under the State's control, to insure that the exploitation of the poor would end.
In 1836, one of Simon's disciples, Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez, attempted to combine Socialism with Catholicism, with something called Christian Socialism. Francois Marie Charles Fourier (1772-1837), a French philosopher, planned out model communities, in which people would live in a pleasurable atmosphere, and work at their own pace, at jobs they like. Everyone would know what to do and when to do it. There would be no need for regulations. In 1832, he failed in an attempt to set up such a commune at Versailles. However, his followers founded about 30 communal settlements in the United States, such as the Brook Farm (1841-47).
In a word, before Marx, many thinkers pursuited the goal of communism. Jean de Labadie, Ann Lee, Joseph Meacham, Lucy Wright, Francois Emile Babeuf, Robert Owen, Joseph M. Bimeler, Saint-Simon, Francois Marie Charles Fourier,etc were the vanguards of the communist movements in the world. These communist movements are different from the Marxism because they followed the spirit of Christinity, and practised the peaceful revolution.
During the period 1760-1850, the Industrial Revolution blazed out, and continued developing to the late 18th century and the early 19th century in England. The Industrial Revolution also subsequently developed throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. It destroyed the old manner of doing things, and caused a lot of fundamental changes in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and the social structure in England. Advances in agricultural techniques, changes in industrial organization and new technology , the increase in commerce, foreign and domestic, were all conditions which promoted the advent of the Industrial Revolution. The famous scientists of this era were Galileo, Bacon, Descartes and others.

The Industrial Revolution caused a lot of changes in society. The towns in Europe were crowded, dirty and unregulated. They grew so rapidly that no one took the time to consider the consequence of such conditions. In the areas of public sanitation and public health, ignorance reigned. In the mid-1800s there were several outbreaks of typhoid and cholera.
Prior to industrialization in England, land was the primary source of wealth. The landed aristocracy held enormous powers the feudal system. However, a new source of great wealth grew from the Industrial Revolution, that which was derived from the ownership of factories and machinery. The owner of factories and those who invested in factories and machinery would be the capitalists.They were the capitalists who gave the necessary impetus to the speedy growth of the Industrial Revolution.
During the era of the Industrial Revolution, the capitalists built a number of factories and hired

a lot of workers. Therefore, society developed into two new social classes: capitalists and workers.


Marxism, initially developed by German revolutionary philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels from 1840s into the 1890s, became the principal form of socialist thought during this time, and with few exceptions, it remained in this position well until the 1970s. Most influential leftist and socially critical theories either develop Marxism further (e.g., social democracy, Leninism, Maoism and Trotskyism), or completely drop Marxist ideology and do not set the creation of classless society as their aim (e.g., the modern feminism, New Labour, environmentalism). Therefore the words Marxism and communism are usually understood as synonymous.

V.1.KARL MARX (1818-83)

Heinrich Karl Marx (Moses Mordecai Marx Levy) was born of wealthy parents (his father was a lawyer). When he was six, his family converted to Christianity.He joined the Satanist Church .He received a Doctorate in Philosophy in 1841, but was turned down for a teaching position, because of his revolutionary activities. In 1843, he studied Economics in Paris, where he learned about French communism. Again he was expelled for revolutionary activities. In 1845, he moved to Brussels, where, with German philosopher, Friedrich Engels (the son of a wealthy textile manufacturer, 1820-95), who he met in Paris in 1844, they reorganized the Communist League.

In 1848, Marx published his Communist Manifesto (which he was working on from 1830-47), from an Engel's draft (which was an extension of Engel's Confessions of a Communist), which also borrowed heavily from Clinton Roosevelt's book, The Science of Government Founded on Natural Law. It had been commissioned by the Communist League in London. The League, formerly known as the League of the Just (or the League of Just Men).
In 1867, Marx wrote the first volume of Das Kapital, which became known as the "Bible of the Working Class." The second volume appeared after Marx' death, edited by Engels from Marx' notes, in 1885; and volume three appeared in 1894.When Marx died in March 14, 1883, only six people attended his funeral. He never supported his family, which had produced six children. Three of them died of starvation in infancy and two others committed suicide. Actually, Engels supported Marx with income from his father's cotton mills in England. Marx was buried in London, at Highgate Cemetery.

Works ( Selection)
  • The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law (1842)
  • Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1843
  • On the Jewish Question, 1843
  • Notes on James Mill, 1844
  • Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
  • The Holy Family, 1845
  • Theses on Feuerbach, 1845
  • The German Ideology, 1845
  • The Poverty of Philosophy, 1847
  • Wage-Labor and Capital, 1847
  • Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848
  • The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, 1852
V.1. FRIEDRICH ENGELS (1820-1895)

Friedrich Engels was a German social scientist and philosopher. In 1842 he was sent to England to manage the family's mill in Manchester. In 1844, Engels returned to Germany, and he stopped in Paris to meet Karl Marx . Engels ended up staying in Paris to help Marx write The Holy Family. From 1845 to 1848, Engels and Marx lived in Brussels. They contacted and joined the underground German Communist League and were commissioned by the League to write a pamphlet explaining the principles of communism. This became The Manifesto of the Communist Party. It was first published on 21 February 1848. During February 1848, the revolution in France caused Engels & Marx to go back to their home country of Prussia. In 1849, he fled to Paris and then London. Engels stayed in Prussia and took part in an armed uprising in South Germany . When the uprising was crushed, Engels returned to London where he and Marx lived until Marx's death in 1883. After 1883, Engels devoted much of his remaining years to editing Marx's unfinished volumes of Capital.
Engels died of throat cancer in London in 1895. Following cremation at Brookwood Cemetery near Woking, his ashes were scattered off Beachy Head, near Eastbourne as he had requested.

Major works:

  • The Holy Family was a book written by Marx & Engels in November 1844.
  • The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844
  • Anti-Dühring, Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science (1878)
  • Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880)
  • The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884)
V.3. VLADIMIR LENIN (1870-1924)

Vladimir Illich Ulyanov (later known as Lenin) was a Russian revolutionary, communist politician, and the first head of the Soviet Union. He studied law at Kazan University, and started practising law in Samara.He founded the "League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class" in 1895 on the basis of the unification of all Marxist circles in St. Petersburg. Lenin was arrested many times by Russian authorities. He fled to France, England, Switzerland, and Finland..
When World War I began in 1914, Nicholas II assumed supreme command of the Russian Army fighting on the Eastern Front, but he failed. During 1917, there was a strong decline support for his government. In October 1917, the Russian Revolution destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union with the Provisional government. Lenin returned to Petrograd in October, and directed the overthrow of the Provisional Government from the Smolny Institute between 6 and 8 November 1917. On 8 November 1917, Lenin was elected the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars by the Russian Congress of Soviets.The Russian Constituent Assembly was shut down during its first session 19 January and the Bolsheviks in alliance with the left Socialist Revolutionaries then relied on support from the soviets.

In 1918, the Russian Civil War broke between the White Movement and the revolutionary regime, the newly created Russian SFSR. It carried out mass arrests and summary executions that became known as the White Terror and the Red Terror.

After his first stroke, Lenin dictated to his wife several papers regarding the government. Most famous of these is Lenin's Testament, which was partially inspired by the 1922 Georgian Affair and among other things criticized top-ranking communists, including Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and Leon Trotsky. Of Stalin, Lenin said that he had "unlimited authority concentrated in his hands". He suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post" because his rudeness would become "intolerable in a Secretary-General". Upon Lenin's death, his wife mailed his Testament to the central committee, to be read at the 13th Party Congress in May 1924. However, the committee and especially the ruling "triumvirate" – Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev – didn't care about this Lenin's Testament. This Testament was first officially published in 1925 in the United States by Max Eastman. Lenin died at 18:50 Moscow time on 21 January 1924, aged 53, at his estate in Gorki Leninskiye.
V. 4. JOSEPH STALIN (1922-1953)

Josef Stalin Stalin was born in Georgia to a family of limited financial means in a town plagued by gang warfare and street brawls. At sixteen, he received a scholarship to a Georgian Orthodox seminary but he was expelled shortly before his final exams. After leaving the seminar, he began organizing strikes in 1902 and joined the Bolsheviks in 1903. About 1913, he was arrested along with many other Bolsheviks and condemned to four years imprisonment in Siberia.
After returning from exile to Saint Petersburg, Stalin supportied Alexander Kerensky's provisional government. After Lenin prevailed at the April 1917 Party conference, Stalin and Pravda supported overthrowing the provisional government, then he was elected to the Bolshevik Central Committee and appointed People's Commissar for Nationalities' Affairs and a member of Politburo . In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), known as the Soviet Union. Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disrupted food production, resulting in widespread famine, such as the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932-1933, known in Ukraine as the Holodomor. During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of corruption, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society. In the years following, millions of ethnic minorities were also deported. Stalin died on 5 March 1953 at the age of 74, and was embalmed on 9 March. Officially, the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage. His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961, when his body was removed from the Mausoleum and buried next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization.

V.5. LEON TROTSKY (1879- 1940)

After their Civil War victory, Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia. Lenin and Lev Kamenev helped to have Stalin appointed as General Secretary in 1922 to help build a base against Trotsky, who moved to formally impose the Party dictatorship over the industrial sectors.
Leon Trotsky was the fifth child of a well-to-do farmer. When Trotsky was nine, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated and he was enrolled in a historically German school .Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to Nikolayev (now Mykolaiv), and was introduced to Marxism, and became a Marxist. Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name 'Lvov', he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets and popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.In January 1898, over 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested, and he spent the next two years in prison awaiting trial. In 1900 he was sentenced to four years in exile in the Irkutsk region of Siberia.

He was a Marxist theorist, one of the leaders of the Russian October Revolution, second only to Lenin. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo.

After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union. As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent. Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a term coined as early as 1905 by his opponents in order to separate it from Marxism. Trotsky’s ideas remain a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism.

Mao Zedong 毛澤東 was born in Hunan province in China. After graduating from the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan in 1918, Mao went to Beijing with Professor Yang Changji, his college teacher and future father-in-law. Professor Yang held a faculty position at Peking University. Because of Yang's recommendation, Mao worked as an assistant librarian at the University with Li Dazhao as curator. Mao registered as a part-time student at Beijing University and engaged himself in reading Communist theories.During this time, Mao joined the Kuomintang [ 4]. In early 1927, Mao returned to Hunan where in an urgent meeting held by the Communist Party. From 1931 to 1934, Mao helped establish the Soviet Republic of China and was elected Chairman of this small republic in the mountainous areas in Jiangxi.
Chiang Kai-shek, chairman of the Kuomintang government, determined to eliminate the Communists. By October 1934, he had them surrounded, prompting them to engage in the "Long March," a retreat from Jiangxi in the southeast to Shaanxi in the northwest of China. Mao entered the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China.Mao led the Communist resistance against the Japanese and the Kuomintang. In 1945, the Japanese surrendered, and January 1949, Kuomintang forces withdrew to Taiwan .

The People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. In October 1950, Mao made the decision to send the People's Volunteer Army into Korea and fought against the United Nations forces led by the U.S. Along with land reform, there were also campaigns of mass repression and public executions targeting alleged counter-revolutionaries (Zhen Fan),The U.S. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform, 800,000 killed in the Zhen Fan campaign. Mao himself claimed that a total of 700,000 people were executed during the years 1949–53. However, because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution", the number of deaths range between 2 million and 5 million.

Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched a phase of rapid collectivization. Mao also launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953-8). The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power. But his Second Five Year Plan, the Great Leap Forward, between 1959 and 1962 caused 20 million deaths of starvation or diseases related to starvation. Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement, with death tolls possibly in the millions.


The first Marxist international organization was the Communist League. It was founded originally as the League of the Just by German workers in Paris in 1836. This was initially a utopian socialist and Christian communist grouping devoted to the ideas of Gracchus Babeuf. The League of the Just participated in the Blanquist uprising of May 1839 in Paris. Hereafter expelled from France, the League of the Just moved to London where by 1847 numbered about 1,000. Wilhelm Weitling's 1842 book, Guarantees of Harmony and Freedom, which criticised private property and bourgeois society, was one of the bases of its social theory.

The Communist League was created in London in June 1847 out of a merger of the League of the Just and of the fifteen-man Communist Correspondence Committee of Bruxelles, headed by Karl Marx.The birth conference was attended by Friedrich Engels, who convinced the League to change its motto from All men are brethren to Karl Marx's phrase, Working men of all countries, unite!. The Communist League held a second congress, also in London, in November and December 1847. Both Marx and Engels attended, and they were mandated to draw up a manifesto for the organisation. This became the famous The Communist Manifesto. The League was ended formally in 1852.

In 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in Saint Martin's Hall, London there was founded the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), better known as the First International. It was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were committed to the working class and class struggle. At its founding, it was an alliance of people from diverse groups, besides Marxists it included French Mutualists, Blanquists, English Owenites, Italian republicans, such American proponents of individualist anarchism as Stephen Pearl Andrews and William B. Greene, followers of Mazzini, and other socialists of various persuasions.
Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start. The first objections to Marx's came from the Mutualists who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers (called Collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads. Perhaps the clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism.
In 1872, the conflict in the First International climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress. This clash is often cited as the origin of the long-running conflict between anarchists and Marxists. From then on, the Marxist and anarchist currents of socialism had distinct organisations, at various points including rival 'internationals'. In 1872, the organization was relocated to New York City. The First International disbanded four years later, at the 1876 Philadelphia conference.

The Socialist International better known as the Second International (1889–1916), a Marxist organisation of socialist and labour parties, was formed in Paris on July 14, 1889 with support of Engels (Marx was already dead at the time). At the Paris meeting delegations from 20 countries participated. The International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though this time excluding the anarcho-syndicalists, and was in existence until 1916.

Among the Second International's most famous actions were its (1889) declaration of May 1 as International Workers' Day and its 1910 declaration of March 8 as International Women's Day. It initiated the international campaign for the 8-hour working day. The International's permanent executive and information body was the International Socialist Bureau (ISB), based in Brussels and formed after the International's Paris Congress of 1900. Emile Vandervelde and Camille Huysmans of the Belgian Labour Party were its chair and secretary. Lenin was a member of the International from 1905. The Second International dissolved during World War I, in 1916, as the separate national parties that composed it did not maintain a unified internationalist front against the war, instead generally supporting their respective nations' role.


Lenin created the Third International (Comintern) in 1919, and sent in 1920 the Twenty-one Conditions, which included democratic centralism, to all European socialist parties willing to adhere. In France, for example, the majority of the SFIO socialist party split in 1921 to form the French Communist Party (French Section of the Communist International). Henceforth, the term "Communism" was applied to the objective of the parties founded under the umbrella of the Comintern.In March 1919, Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders met with revolutionary socialists from around the world and formed the Communist International. Members of the Communist International, including Lenin and the Bolsheviks themselves, broke off from the broader socialist movement. From that point onwards, they would become known as communists. In Russia, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the "Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)," which eventually became the CPSU.

After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union. Trotsky also opposed Stalin's peace agreements with Adolf Hitler in the 1930s. As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued in exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent.Trotsky's ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, a term coined as early as 1905 by his opponents in order to separate it from Marxism. Trotsky’s ideas remain a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism.

Communism had a theory, an international organization and the brutal leaders therefore they became the disaster for human kind.

[1] .Karl Marx. Collected Works. Vol.24, Section I.
[2].使老有所終,壯有所用,幼有所長, 寡孤獨廢疾者,皆有所養。男有分,女有歸。貨其棄於地也,不必藏於己.
(禮經, 禮運)
. http//chinese.dsturgeon.net/text.pl?node=9871&if=en
http://http//www.classicallibrary.org/plato/dialogues/republic/book4.htm[3]. Republic, book IV, book VIII. Translated by Benjamin Jowett.http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html
[4].At the direction of the Comintern, a number of Chinese communists were inducted into the Kuomintang in 1922.

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