Bình luận về Hồ Chí Minh và Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam

Bình luận về Hồ Chí Minh và Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam

Wednesday, 26 September 2012




 Many Vietnamese communist documents stated that President Ho Chi Minh, born Nguyễn Tất Thành, took alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc when he engaged in the revolutionary activities (1)

Vietnamese communist archive wrote: After World War I, using the pseudonym Nguyen Ai Quoc (Nguyen the Patriot), Ho engaged in radical activities and was in the founding group of the French Communist party.(HCM, VII)
  Wikipedia had the same ideas with History of Vietnamese Communist party :
Following World War I, under the name Nguyễn Ái Quốc ("Nguyễn the Patriot"), he petitioned for recognition of the civil rights of the Vietnamese people in French Indochina to the Western powers at the Versailles peace talks, but was ignored. Citing the language and the spirit of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, Quốc petitioned U.S. PresidentWoodrow Wilson to help remove the French from Vietnam and replace them with a new, nationalist government. 
On the other hand, some authors believed  that "Nguyễn Ái Quốc" was the common alias of Phan Chu Trinh, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Phan Văn Trưòng and Nguyễn Tất Thành. They also said  Nguyễn Tất Thành founded " Brotherhood of compatriots" , wrote Le Paria"  and " The petition of the nation An Nam " with Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường,   and Nguyễn Thế Truyền..


This question was related to many important persons in Vietnamese history, therefore the presentation of their biographies  is very necessary.  As early as 1910, a number of Vietnamese people lived in France. The majority of them were students and politicians. Some prominent figures were Phan Chu Trinh, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn An Ninh and  Tạ Thu Thâu.

(1). Phan Chu Trinh (1872-1926),
Phan Chu Trinh,  alias Tây Hồ, was born in Tây Loc, Quảng Nam Province in Annam. He was a Vietnamese nationalist . In 1901 he gained the title Doctorate of the additional list (phó bảng) as Nguyễn Sinh Sắc, but in 1905, he resigned from his post in the mandarin bureaucracy. He had become strongly opposed to the monarchy, .He sought to end France's brutal occupation of Vietnam. After peasant tax revolts erupted in 1908, he was arrested, and was sentenced to death, but it was commuted to life imprisonment after his progressive admirers in France intervened. He was sent to Côn Đảo island. ( Poulo Condor)., After three years, in 1911, he was pardoned and sentenced to house arrest. He said he would rather return to prison than have partial freedom. He went to Paris in 1911 to get the support of progressive French politicians and Vietnamese exiles. In 1914, Phan Chu Trịnh was imprisoned  in Saté, and released in 1915.There he worked with Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, and Nguyễn An Ninh, Tạ Thu Thâu in "The Group of Vietnamese Patriots". The group was based at 6 Villa des Gobelins. There they wrote patriotic articles signed alias, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, "on behalf of the Group of Vietnamese Patriots". He worked as a photograph retoucher to support himself while he was in France. He returned to Saigon in 1925, where he died on 24 March 1926, aged 53. His funeral was attended by 60,000 people and caused big protests across the country demanding the end of French colonial occupation.

(2). Nguyễn Thế Truyền (1898-1969)

 Nguyễn Thế Truyền  was born in Hành Thiện village, Nam Định province, into a famous family. In 1910, he went to France and in 1920, he received his BS in Chemistry, BS in Physics, and BA. in Literature. He was a Vietnamese revolutionist struggling for the independence of Vietnam. In France , he jointed the Socialist Party of France, and    Communist  Party of France (1922), he worked closely with Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn An Ninh in "Brotherhood of Compatriots". He was  the Editor-in-chief of Le Paria, but later, he abandoned Communism. In 1926, he edited the newspapers  Viet Nam Hồn (Soul of Vietnam), Hồn Việt Nam,L' Ame Annanite, La Nation Annamite and Phục Quốc.

In 1927, he founded Parti Annamite d'Indépendance, PAI.  (1927-1929). He was the leader of this party , in 1928, he came back with his family to Nam Định Việtnam, so  he entrusted this party to Tạ Thu Thâu. In 1940, he was exiled   with his brother Nguyễn Thế Song in Madagascar until  1946. Nguyễn Thế Truyền  died on September 19, 1969  in Sàigòn, Vietnam.

(3).Phan Van Truong ( 1876- 1933)

Phan Văn Trường  was a native of Đông Ngạc village, Từ Liêm district,  Hà Đông province ( now Hà Nội). After graduation from the Faculty of Law in Hanoi, hehe served as interpreter at  the Palace of Resident Superior (in North Vietnam). Afterward, he came to France to  study law at the University of  Sarbone in Paris.
He also worked as associate professor (repetiteur d 'Annamite) in the School of Languages ​​and Oriental Civilizations (Ecole des Langues Orientales) in Paris .
As yearly as 1912, lawyer Phan Văn Trường set up a mutual self-help association, Đồng Bào Thân ái, "Brotherhood of Compatriots" to serve as a secret plaform to support the activities of the exile Phan Bội Châu and prince Cường Để. This is the first Vietnamese organization in France. In 1914, Phan Văn Trường and Phan Chu Trinh were arrested , and released in 1915.About this time, this association was no longer because Phan Van Trường was transferred to Toulouse as an interpreter for the military service. After World War I, he studied further and earned his PhD of laws, so he opened an lawyer's office in Paris.
 This time he continued to operate in Vietnam patriotic group in France with Phan Châu Trinh, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Nguyễn An Ninh. He and Châu Trinh, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Nguyễn An Ninh took the same alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc in their revolutionary newspapers. They wrote the "Annamite Revendications du peuple" (" The petition of the nation An Nam "also known as the" claim of the people of Vietnam ") in 1919 with the pen name Nguyen Ai Quoc, but Phan Văn Trường was considered the "architect" of this document. In late 1925, Phan Văn Trường and Nguyễn An Ninh came back to Vietnam. They founded the Newspaper "Chuông Rè"(La Cloche Fêlée- The Cracked Bell) and "Nước Nam" (L'Annam - The Vietnam) in French in Saigon.

Phan Văn Trường and Nguyễn An Ninh actively fought against the French colonial policy. He was the leader of the party High expectations (also known as High Youth group expectations). L'Annam newspaper is the speaker of this group. He has posted some articles of Le Paria, Humanité, The international information (of the Communist International ). He was the first journalist who published the Communist Party Manifesto of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in his newspaper.  Afterward, he was sentenced to prison. He continued to fight for democracy after release from prison and died in 1933.

4. Nguyễn An Ninh (1900- 1943)

 Nguyễn An Ninh was born in Long Thượng village, Cần Giuộc district, Chợ Lớn province (now Long An). His father, Nguyễn Sinh Khương, was a native of Quán Tre village, Hóc Môn district (now Saigon), a Confucian and and a patriot. He followed his education at Taberd school, Mỹ Tho high school, then Chasseloup Laubat School in Saigon. Năm 1915, he worked as a collaborateur of Courrier saigonnais. Next year, he enrolled in the College of Medicine in Hanoi but after some months, he changed to the College of Law in Hanoi. In 1918, he went to France to study Law at University Sorbonne in Paris.Two years later, he received his Bachelor of Laws. In Paris, Nguyễn An Ninh worked closely with Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền. He collaborated with Le Paria (Người cùng khổ) in Paris.
On October 5, 1922, he came home and delivered many speeches in order to call for renovation. On February 22, 1923, he went to France second time to complete his doctoral study, but about 6 moths, he came back to Vietnam.

In Saigon, he edited "Tiếng chuông rè" (La cloche fêlée- The Cracked Bell). On January 1st, 1925, he traveled France third time, he wrote "La France en Indochine" ("Nước Pháp ở Đông Dương”), accused French domination. In late 1925, he and Phan Văn Trường returned Vietnam, reedited "Tiếng chuông rè" following Marxism. He was arrested five times by French authorities from 1926 to 1939, he died on August 14, 1943 by French and Communist  (1) in Poulo-Condore.

Their biographies  based on Wikipedia can  give us  an overview of Vietnamese history:
(1). In France, as yearly as 1910, many Vietnamese patriots came together to fight for an independent Vietnam.. They had the spirit of struggle and had the knowledge of high culture. In the group of Vietnamese patriots in France, Phan Chu Trinh worked as a counselor, Phan Văn Trường as a president, Nguyễn Thế Truyền as a Vice president, and Nguyễn An Ninh as a General secretary.

(2). Phan Văn Trường founded "Brotherhood of Compatriots" in 1912.

(3). Nguyễn Thế Truyền was Editor-in-chief of Le Paria, and Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn An Ninh also wrote for Le Paria. Le Paria (Người cùng khổ),was a monthly journal, by the patronage of  Henri Barbusse,  lasted for 36 issues from 1922 until 1936. Le Paria (Người cùng khổ),was a monthly journal, by the patronage of  Henri Barbusse.Thirty-six issues of Paria out between 1922 and 1936.. All numbers with the exception of a single were printed on a page of large format. It was written in French, and   the title Paria was flanked by French, Chinese characters and Arabic. The founding members were Marie Bloncourt, lawyers, representatives of Dahomey (in Africa) as general secretary. Nguyen Ai Quoc is representative of Indochina. Jean Baptiste, representing Guadeloupe, etc. At first it had a membership of 200. Phan Van Truong, Nguyen The Truyen and Nguyen An Ninh are members from 1922, and they spoke several times at the offices of the Assembly Hall or Salle des Societes savantes. (Đặng Hữu Thụ, trang 40, Thụy Khuê, HCM, CII)

(4).They lived together on N0 6 Villa des Gobelins, and worked together. They wrote many articles in their newspapers with the common alias "Nguyễn Ái Quốc ( Nguyễn, the Patriot).

(5).They wrote the " claim of Vietnamese people " in 1919, they signed the common alias "Nguyễn Ái Quốc" and Phan Văn Trường was architect of this historic document.

In a word, we can conclude that Nguyễn Ái Quốc was a common alias of Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Nguyễn An Ninh when they signed in their revolutionary essays.
Vietnamese patriots in France made a lot of achievements due to Phan Văn Trường and Phan Chu Trinh. Phan Văn Trường, a scholar and a lawyer, was an excellent leader of Vietnamese revolution. In 1922, Nguyễn Tất Thành left France for Moscow. In 1925,  Phan Văn Trường , Phan Chu Trinh and Nguyễn An Ninh came back to Vietnam to attack   French colonialists in Vietnam. Vietnamese patriots in France such as Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Tạ Thu Thâu, Hồ Hữu Tường, Phan Văn Hùm, Huỳnh Văn Phương, Trần Văn Thạch... still continued their revolt. Nguyễn Thế Truyền became the leader of Vietnamese revolutionists.in France. He collaborated with L' Humanité, Le Populaire, La Vie Ouvrière, Le Paria, Le Libertaire. He also associated with the revolutionists in Affrica, Madagascar, Korea, China in order to globalize the Anti-colonialism.  Le procès de la colonisation française (Bản án chế độ thực dân Pháp- The trial of French colonization was  the result of  this international cooporation.


 After 1923, Tất Thành became a lackey, a spy of Comintern, but before 1923, he was nothing. He did not finish his elementary education when Bùi Kỷ who was the same age with him, earned his doctor of the old education system in Vietnam in 1910, and he became a student of French School of Colony (École coloniale) in France in 1912. Although Nguyễn An Ninh was younger than him, he received his Bachelor of Laws in 1920. Nguyễn Tất Thành was not a kitchen help, he also not a waiter in a restaurant because he had no skill. He was only a servant doing odd job for his living. He did not speak and write French well. As a consequent, he could not be Nguyễn Ái Quốc, he could not be a writer at all.  We must realized that  French writing in "the claim of Vietnamese people", and  in Le Paria was the scholarly literature, not the style of an unfinished elementary education guy.
 1. Sophie Quinn Judge wrote that in 1912, Vietnamese people had a habit of meeting at a coffee house or tea shop in Montparnasse, where these shops became a political club. Phan Chu Trinh and Phan Văn Trường were the important persons of this club, consequently, Phan Văn Trường became the leader of "Brotherhood of Compatriots".

2. According to Thụy Khuê, Nguyễn Tất Thành came to France on August 1919 while the Versaille peace talks began on January 1919 (2). And La Fraternité des compatriotes was founded in 1912 and closed in 1914. (HCM, XCVII), therefore, Tất Thành had no role at that time. In my opinion, in 1919, Tất Thành was an illegal immigrant, how he could found an association?

Thuỵ Khuê insisted that Phan Văn Trường was the founder of Đồng bào Thân Ái ( Le Fraternité des Compatriots- Brotherhood of Compatriots). The memoir of Phan Van Truong entitled "Une histoire des Conspirateurs Annamites à Paris ou La vérité sur l'Indochine" (Một câu chuyện về những người Việt Nam mưu loạn ở Paris hay Sự thật về Đông Dương- The Truth in Indochina) gave her the specific evidence:

In 1912, a number of students at the Parangon ( where Nguyễn Thế Truyền followed his education) proposed to found "The Association of Vietnamese Students in France". I answered :" It is easy but we must have the permission to establish the association". Then I began to write the regulations and program of activities of the association (chapter 13, p. 87-88). According to Phan Văn Trường, about 1914, Phan Văn Trường and Phan Chu Trinh were arrested by the French authorities and this association was closed. According to Thu Trang, this association was closed in 1916. (Thu Trang, p. 43). Thụy Khuê affirmed that Phan Văn Trường was the founder of the Association of Vietnamese Students in France and this association was closed in 1914. (Thụy Khuê. Phần XV: Phan Khôi - Chương 1b:Ai viết những bài ký tên Nguyễn Ái Quấc tại Pháp từ 1919 đến 1923?.HCM, CII)

3. Phương Lan Bùi Thế Mỹ (3) in her book entitled " The Revolutionist Tạ Thu Thâu (1906-1945)"  wrote that Nguyễn Thế Truyền collaborated with Le Paria, a newspaper of French Communist Party.
In Le Paria, Nguyễn Thế Truyền and many Vietnamese revolutionists  like Hoàng Quang Giụ,, Hoàng Quang Bích, Văn Thu, Nguyễn Như Phong, Nguyễn Văn Tự v.v... signed the  same alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc. Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Nguyễn Le Patriot was the alias of Nguyễn Thế Truyền group, not consisted of  Nguyễn Tất Thành as the Vietnamese communists said (4) (Tâm Việt,HCM,CXXX)

4.Hồ Hữu Tường in his memoir wrote:
After being released in 1915, Phan Chu Trinh and Phan Văn Trường were supported by Nguyễn Thế Truyền coming from Toulouse and Nguyễn An Ninh coming from Việt Nam in 1918. Phan Chu Trinh sent a letter to Nguyễn Tất Thành in London, and called him for coming to Paris. Phan Chu Trinh was a friend of Nguyễn Sinh Huy, so he considered Nguyễn Tất Thành as his son, he wanted to help him and he needed him.
Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Nguyễn An Ninh were watched carefully by French police, so they need Nguyễn Tất Thành, a new face in Paris, worked for them as a postman or a liaison agent. (5)

5. Thụy Khuê said: I studied the articles signed by "Nguyễn Ái Quốc" (6), I realized that their author was a talent scholar, who was not Nguyễn Tất Thành, a guy of poor education.
(Tôi tìm đọc những văn bản ký tên Nguyễn Ái Quốc bằng tiếng Pháp thì tôi thấy rằng những văn bản ký tên Nguyễn Ái Quốc viết tiếng Pháp rất tài năng mà một tài năng như vậy không thể nào là của một người mới học tiếng Pháp hay có một trình độ kém mà có thể viết được (Mặc Lâm RFA interviewed Thuy Khuê. HCM, CII)

By a deep study, she came to an affirmation:
-Tất Thành came to France in August, 1919, but Phan Văn Trường wrote "the claim of Vietnamese people" signed Nguyễn Ái Quốc then sent to Vesailles and Journals in June 1919. On June 18, 1919, Humanité posted this essay under the new title "Les droits des peuples " (Right of People). 
 This essay was related on some his previous  essays such as :
-The petition demanded the release of  intellectuals  in Poulo-Condore in 1912 by Phan Văn Trường published in Bulletin officiel de la Ligue des droits de l'homme on October  31, 1912.
- Les revendications indigènes (Những thỉnh nguyện của người bản xứ) : Speech on March 13, 1914 at Ecole des Hautes Études Sociales.
 Right of People reflected style of a lawyer and a scholar. The French attacked on the newspapers, so Phan Văn Trường had to write "La question des indigènes en Indochine" (The question of Natives in Indochiana- Vấn đề người bản xứ tại Đông Dương) signed Nguyễn Ái Quốc to answer them in L'Humanité on August 2nd, 1919. Afterward, the question of Nguyễn Ái Quốc and group of " Brotherhood of Compatriots" was dicussed in the French Lower House".
-Nguyễn Thế Truyền had a sense of humor and satire.
-Nguyễn An Ninh 'style was sometime humorous, sometime firm, and sometime moderate..
 (Thuy Khuê, Văn bản Nguyễn Ái Quốc: Lai lịch và văn bản.HCM, CII)

6. French authorities:
The "Group of Vietnamese Compatriots " was found after the World War I by Phan Văn Trường but in fact, this group and "Brotherhood of compatriots" were the same organization created by Phan Văn Trường and Phan Chu Trinh. On April 1919, Phan Văn Trường was demobilized from the French Army , and he came back toN0 6 villa Gobelins, district 13, in Paris.
There were many reports by French authorities:

-(1).French police said:
The " Group of Vietnamese Compatriots" was found many years ago by two revolutionists Phan Văn Trường and Phan Chu Trinh. It was a group of positive activists. During the World War I, their head office was the meeting of Vietnamese soldiers and officers. Although Phan Văn Trường, Phan Chu Trinh were arrested in 1915, Nguyễn Ái Quốc was the leader of this group. (Thu Trang, Những hoạt động của Phan Châu Trinh tại Pháp 1911-1925, Đông nam Á, Paris, 1983, trang 44) - Thụy Khuê. Phần XV: Phan Khôi - Chương 1b: Ai viết những bài ký tên Nguyễn Ái Quấc tại Pháp từ 1919 đến 1923?HCM CII)
Thus the alias "Nguyễn Ái Quốc already appeared around 1915, before the year Nguyễn Tất Thành came to France.

(2). On September 12, 1923, when Nguyễn Tất Thành went to Moscow, the Army Inspector General of Indochina and Indochina people sent a report about Nguyễn Tất Thành to Governor in Indochina :"Les articles publiés sous le nom de Nguyễn Ái Quốc ne sont pas de lui ou ont été tout au moins l'objet des plus sérieures retouches. Cet annamite parle et écrit insuffisament le français pour rédiger tout ce qui paraît sous son nom"
( Nguyễn Tất Thành was not the author of the articles signed by Nguyễn Ái Quốc. Maybe his articles were corrected by a scholar. Nguyễn Tất Thành can not speak and write French well, as a result, he can not write the articles by the alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc.)
(Contrôleur général des troupes indochinois et des Indochinois à Gouverneur général de L'Indochine le 12/9/1923) (Slotfom Série I, Carton II - ĐHT, p.124- Thụy Khuê, Đông nam Á, Paris, 1983, p.44) - Thụy Khuê. Phần XV: Phan Khôi - Chương 1b: Ai viết những bài ký tên Nguyễn Ái Quấc tại Pháp từ 1919 đến 1923?HCM, CII )

(3).Some our spies stated that Phan Văn Trường is author of the articles signed under the alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc.(7)
(4). Phan Văn Trường is author of "The petition of the nation An Nam" in 1919, based on Phan Chu Trinh's ideas" (Thu Trang p.104; - Thụy Khuê. Phần XV: Phan Khôi - Chương 1b: Ai viết những bài ký tên Nguyễn Ái Quấc tại Pháp từ 1919 đến 1923?HCM, CII ).
(5).In the report dated on January 20,1921, investigator Josselme wrote: If anybody can read French and read the articles by Nguyễn Ái Quốc can realize that Nguyễn Tất Thành can not write those articles.(p.498). (HCM, XCVII, trang 497 ).

7. Ngô Văn.
The trial of French colonization (Procès de la colonisation française) signed by Nguyễn Ái Quốc, but in fact by Phan Văn Trường and Nguyễn Thế Truyền (Ngô Văn, p.42).

8. According to Phương Lan, Nguyễn Thế Truyền edited Le  Paria  (HCM,CXXX).

9. In 1960, Lawyer  Nguyễn Văn Chức asked Nguyễn Thế Truyền about the articles written in French in Paris signed by Nguyễn Ái Quốc, especially the Memorandum sent to Versailles Peace Confrence in 1919. Nguyễn Thế Truyền said Nguyễn Tất Thành could not write those articles because he did not finish his elementary education. We wrote those articles and hired him to delivered them, but he proclaimed he was "Nguyễn, the Patriot", and he was author of those essays"!(HCM, CXXXII)

10. Trần Dân Tiên
Before 1911, Ho could not complete his elementary education. Afterward, he had to do odd job for his living. He had not time to continue his education at school as the others.
" Stories about Life and Activities of President Ho's " said Nguyễn Tất Thành could not speak and write French. In the evenings in the ship Latouche-Tréville, he studied French with two French soldiers, and when he worked for the ship owner in Sainte Adresse, he studied with a maid (p.15-20).
With such an education, how Tất Thành could write the French essay as the "The petition of the nation An Nam" in 1919? Therefore, Tất Thành confessed that at that time, Phan Văn Trường wrote this article, but he could not (p.32)
He also confessed that he did not understand about the political question such as trade-union,strike, and political party(p.34). Although he tried to attend the political meetings, but he did not understand a word. He did not understand the meaning of the words " capitalism", "proletariat", "exploit", " socialism", "revolution"...These words made him headache (p.46-47)

Sometime Tất Thành told the truth, but sometime he told lie because Phan Văn Trường wrote " The petition of the nation An Nam" and he signed under the alias "Nguyễn Ái Quốc", not Tất Thành. The alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc could represent the "Group of Vietnamese Patriots", one signature was enough, and Tất Thành could not write, how he could sign?
Moreover, he did not have any knowledge about politics, how he could propose his ideas to Phan Văn Trường? How a Ph. D in Laws could accept the ideas of an elementary guy?
Nguyễn Tất Thành sai that he wrote only a book entitled "The trial of French colonization", this book consisted of the anti-French colonialism documents taken from the French books in the national library. (p.37)

It is sure that Ho Chi Minh did not read this article, an article written by Vietnamese patriots such as Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền and Nguyễn An Ninh, based on the reality in Vietnam, not on the French book in French library.  How the French authorities could put an anti French book in their library!
Tất Thành said that he wrote the play entitled "Bamboo Dragon" (p.37).This play was written by Nguyễn An Ninh, or Nguyễn Thế Truyền, not by Tất Thành, an unfinished  elementary education  guy!

By Trần Dân Tiên words, we can realize that Nguyễn Tất Thành could not write "The petition of the nation An Nam", "The trial of French colonization", and the articles in Le Paria. How Vietnamese communists can take all the articles by Nguyễn Ái Quốc for Nguyễn Tất Thành?

11. Tất Thành 's writing
In last chapter,  we read some letters by Tất Thành, and we understand his ambition and his tricks.
Now by his letters, we can see his skill of writing French. Many scholars criticized his French.

Marseille le 15 Septembre 1911
Monsieur le Président de la République

J’ai l’honneur de solliciter de votre haute bienveillance la faveur d’être admis à suivre les cours de l’Ecole Coloniale comme interne
Je suis actuellement employéc à la Compagnie des Chargeurs Réunis “Amiral Latouche Tréville” pour ma substancee
Je suis entièrement dénué de ressources et avide de m’instruire. Je désirerais devenir utile à la France vis à vis de mes compatriotes et pouvoir en même temps les faire profiter des bienfaits de l’Instruction
Je suis originaire de la province de Nghê An, en Annam
En attendant une réponse que j’espère favorable, agréez, Monsieur Le Président, l’assurance de ma reconnaissance anticipée
Nguyễn Tất Thành, né à Vinh en 1892, fils de Mr. Nguyễn Sinh Huy (sous-docteuri es- lettres )
Etudiant français, quốc ngữ, caractères chinois.

Phạm Đình Hưng finds out three mistakes in Tất Thành 's letter:
-subsistance not substance
-employé par la Compagnie not employé a` la Compagnie
- Veuillez agréer Monsieur le President not agréer Monsieur le President ( HCM, CXXXI)
 The old soldier states many mistakes:
a) He must use a coma after Marseille
b. Name of the month in French is not written with a capital letter (cf Le Secrétaire Idéal, Elisabeth Lange, Marabout Service, 1970, tr.150)
b) Monsieur le Président is enough. He must use a coma after Président
c) employé: Tất Thành was not an employee working in office He was a worker, a kitchen help.
d) He must not use quotation mark for the name of the ship.
e) vis-à-vis   not vis à vis
f) En attendant une réponse que j’espère favorable, agréez, Monsieur Le Président, l’assurance de ma reconnaissance anticipée. This sentence is incorrect. He should write “En attendant une réponse [...] je vous prie d’agréer ...”
g) ès lettres not   es- lettres
h) Etudiant :He must make a sentence. with etudiant But he was a school boy, not a student......(HCM, CV)

Why did not Tất Thành state two important events: his education at Quốc Học in  Huế and his work as a teacher at Duc Thanh school in Phan Thiết?  In fact, he did not  follow  his education at Quốc Học, and worked as a teacher at Duc Thanh school, therefore he did not dare to defraud French authorities.
In my opinion, Tất Thành did not follow any forms of letter. In  a letter for Application ,  we must write   as a résumé . In the first part, we must present  our name, our family, our background and skillsets. But in his letter, he let the important part at the end of letter.

12. Tất Thành' s speaking
 Thụy Khuê  showed  us an  evidence of  Tất Thành ' bad speaking when he answered  a French journalist in June 1964: Le people Viet Nam cest un et le pays du Viet Nam cest un” (.HCM, CII )
Nguyễn Ngọc Quỷ also presented to readers that full conversation between Hồ Chí Minh and a French journalist and his comment as the following:
Est-ce que vous pensez, Monsieur le Président, qu’il y a une solution militaire à la guerre du Sud Viêt Nam ?
Non, parce que ah, vous savez bien que le peuple Viêt Nam, c’est Un, ( What un? Nobody speaks French like that! ) et le pays du Viêt Nam, c’est Un. Les Américains veulent faire une guerre d’agression, comme qu’ils disent, ( word " que" is not necessary) une guerre non déclarée. Comme vous savez aussi, vous avez pu lire dans la presse mondiale, que plus la guerre prolonge, ( "la guerre se prolonge" not la guerre prolonge ) plus les Américains et leurs valets, n' est ce pas, comment dire ça, (se tournant vers quelqu’un à côté), sa lầy… s’enliser… et plus, ils supportent des échecs comme vous savez là récemment.

Par conséquent, la guerre ne peut pas durer éternellement, et je suis très heureux que les politiciens haut placés français ont reconnu cela ( aient reconnu is better ).
Vous pensez que le général de Gaulle pourrait en quelque sorte, à un certain moment, arbitrer le conflit ? Arbitrer ! Qu’est-ce que vous comprenez par le mot arbitrer ? Nous ne sommes pas des équipes de foot ball. Rire et ricanement.
Au-delà des Accords de Genève si je ne me trompe, une idée du général de Gaulle est la neutralisation de tout le Sud-Est Asiatique. Est-ce c’est une idée qui vous paraît intéressante ?

Comme j’ai déjà dit quelquefois, c’est une idée intéressante, mais ça dépend la volonté ( It must be "depend de la volonté" ) de ces peuples, et… la manière comment on procède (It 's bad language !)  à la réaliser.
C’est une grande question. n’est-ce pas ?. et je ne peux pas dire que je suis d’accord, n’est-ce pas ?…je ne dis pas que je ne suis pas d’accord, n’est-ce pas ? Parce que.. vous dites fleurs, fleurs ; il y a beaucoup de sortes de fleurs, il y a des roses, des blanches, des rouges, etc... des fleurs qui sentent bon, d’autres qui ne sentent pas bon… , mais on dit fleurs, n’est-ce pas ?

Monsieur le Président, nous avons constaté avec chagrin au cours de notre voyage au Nord Viêt Nam, que l’influence française est devenue à peu près inexistante dans votre pays. Les moins de 25 ans ne comprennent plus du tout le français. Et je me demande si, à votre idée, des rapports peuvent se rétablir tels que la France continue à jouer… une sorte de rôle culturel ?

Avec la France surtout, et avec tous les autres pays, nous voulons avoir une coopération amicale, culturelle, économique, etc… , mais je suis sûr que vous ne voulez pas avoir (  " avoir " must be deleted), n’est-ce pas, que la France ait l’influence qu’elle avait avant, … c’est une autre chose … mais coopération culturelle, économique, qu’est ce qu’il y a encore ?, sportive par exemple, etc…etc… nous, nous désirons.

Si la guerre se cristallise au Sud et se poursuit encore pendant quelques années, pensez-vous que l’avenir économique du Nord Viêt Nam soit viable ?
Je suis sûr que ça (?) non seulement viable ( We need verb être , and write " c'est "), mais ça progresse. Parce que vous avez vu vous-même, vous avez constaté vous-même que, ici, nous travaillons beaucoup, notre peuple travaille beaucoup, avec abnégation, n’est-ce pas ?, et avec dévouement, avec enthousiasme.

D’un côté, nous travaillons pour…, comment dirais-je, pour principalement, n’est-ce pas, de nos propres forces, et aussi nous avons l’aide fraternelle des pays socialistes.
Jusqu’ici, nous avons déjà réalisé des progrès, pas tant comme nous le voulons, nous avons réalisé des progrès et dans l’avenir, nous progressons nous-mêmes.
Vous mentionnez là l’aide des pays socialistes. Est-ce que cette aide ne s’est pas trouvée légèrement compromise à la suite du conflit idéologique entre la Russie et la Chine ?

Non,…… parce que ces questions, n’est-ce pas, n’est pas différence idéologique (After "ces questions", we must use "ne sont pas " ) entre nos différents partis-frères, c’est nos affaires intérieures ; ça passera, et l’union…l’unité, ça se fera. Mais l’aide fraternelle continue, continuera, c’est très précieuse pour nous.
Certains ont l’impression chez nous, Monsieur le Président, que le Nord Viêt Nam se trouve actuellement assez isolé, asphyxié même, et, politiquement , il ne pourra difficilement éviter de devenir une sorte de satellite de la Chine. Qu’est-ce que vous répondez à ça ? JAMAIS !! (Comme un cri) (HCM, CXXXIV)

When  Ho was 70 year old, he still spoke  the "language of the waiters" (tiếng bồi), he did not make any progress in French speaking . So did he    in French writing.  Thus, we can conclude that Hồ Chí Minh was not the writer of the articles signed by Ngutyễn Ái Quốc. He was not Nguyễn Ái Quốc.


Nguyễn Ái Quốc was the common alias Nguyễn Ái Quốc of a group of Vietnamese patriots such as Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, Nguyễn An Ninh, but not Nguyễn Tất Tất Thành. Nguyễn Tất Thành came to France in August 1919.
 This alias had appeared before August 1919.
-  Although Phan Văn Trường, Phan Chu Trinh were arrested in 1915, Nguyễn Ái Quốc was the leader of this group.
-Phan Văn Trường wrote "the claim of Vietnamese people" signed Nguyễn Ái Quốc then sent to Vesailles and Journals in June 1919. On June 18, 1919, Humanité posted this essay under the new title "Les droits des peuples " (Right of People). 
This event was  clearly but Nguyễn Tất Thành and Vietnamese communists still want to seize this alias for Hồ Chí Minh.
Why? There are many reasons: 
1. Due to their ambition and propagation problem,  they want to seize the fame and the accomplishments of Vietnamese Nationalist party for them. Although Nguyễn Tất Thành was an unfinished elementary education guy, he wanted to be a famous scholar like Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền and Nguyễn An Ninh.
 2. By mistakes, some  French policemen reported  that Nguyễn Tất Thành  would be Nguyễn Ái Quốc. This is understandable because  Tất Thành lived at N0 6 villa Gobelins, district 13, in Paris with Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền and Nguyễn An Ninh.
3. When Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền and Nguyễn An Ninh wanted to conceal  their identity, Nguyễn Tất Thành wanted to publicize his name. In the meetings, sometimes he proclaimed that he was Nguyễn Ái Quốc.
Hồ Hữu Tường told a story about Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường and Nguyễn Tất Thành:
After releasing in 1915, Phan Văn Trường and Phan Chu Trinh  cooporated with  Nguyễn Thế Truyền, and Nguyễn An Ninh. They formed a group of Vietnamese patriots. They wrote many articles in a spirit of  teamwork. At first, Phan Chu Trình proposed his ideas then Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền discussed and wrote the articles . They found a common name for their group.  At first they took alias "Nguyễn Ố Pháp" (Nguyễn, Anti French), but this alias was opposed by their French friends , as a result, they changed into "Nguyễn Ái Quốc" (Nguyễn, the Patriot). After  the essays were finished,Tất Thành had to   bring them to the Journal office. Tất Thành was only a postman for this group. But in a club in Faubourg, an young man  raised his hand to demand speaking. The president asked his name, he said he was "Nguyễn Ái Quốc". All people in the hall were very excited, especially the spies. It was a good news for their report.
This report was immediately presented to the Minister of Colony, but he did not believe that report. The Minister sent a letter to Nguyễn Ái Quốc at N0 6 villa Gobelins, to order him to report himself to his office. Next day, he came to the Ministry of Colony and he said he was Nguyễn Ái Quốc! Afterward, Tất Thành proclaimed that he was Nguyễn Ái Quốc! (6)
 Phan Thị Nguyệt Minh, Phan Chu Trình's grand daughter described the meeting between Phan Chu Trinh and Nguyễn Sinh Sắc in Saigon. Phan Chu Trinh said before 1919, we wrote some articles, signed Nguyễn Ái Quốc, but we had a little resound. But in 1919, after we wrote "the claim of the people of Vietnam ", and sent it to Versailles Peace Conference, so many people paid attention to us, and French authorities ordered me to report myself to the Minister's office, but when Tất Thành went to there, and said he was Nguyễn Ái Quốc, so they were very surprised.(8)

 That was the way Tất Thành seized all fame and works of group Phan Văn Trường for his own. He was a postman,  an unfished elementary education president, but not a writer. He violated the copyright.


(1). .http://thutuong.chinhphu.vn/Home/TIEU-SU-CHU-TOCH-HO-CHI-MINH-1890--1969/20111/12034.vgp

(1). An Khê .Từ Khám Lớn Đến Côn Đảo.Làng Văn.Canada,1992.
Trần Văn Ân,Khám Lớn Sài Gòn Trong Thời Ngồi Tù cûa Trần Văn Ân (1941) tr.165.
(2). Paris Peace Conference, 1919.The conference opened on 18 January 1919.Wikipedia (Noted by Nguyễn Thiên Thụ)
(3).Phương Lan Bùi Thế Mỹ.
Bùi Thế Mỹ (1902-1943), alias Lan Đình, Thông Reo, was a famous journalist, born in Duy Xuyên district, Quảng Nam province. His wife was Nguyễn Thị Lành, , a teacher in Long Xuyên, her alias was Phương Lan, or Phương Lan Bùi Thế Mỹ. She and Tạ Thu Thâu were the natives of Long Xuyên.
(4). Phương Lan Bùi Thế Mỹ. Nhà Cách Mạng Tạ Thu Thâu 1906-1945  (Tủ Sách Sưu Khảo Phương Lan, Saigon 1970, p. 87)

(5). Hồ Hữu Tường ( 1910-1980), was a native of Thường Thạnh village, Cái Răng district, Cần Thơ. province . He was a politician and a journalist, from 1926 to 1932, he had studied Science in Mathematics at the University of Marseille in France where he participated in political activities with the exiled patriots like Nguyen The Truyen, Phan Van Truong, Nguyen Van Tao, Ta Thu Thau, Phan Van Hum, Phan Van Chanh v. v. and joined the Fourth International. His memoir entitled "41 Năm Làm Báo (Forty One Years In Journalism) Trí Dăng, Saigon, 1972 was a famous work. He was imprisoned by Communist and died on June 6 tháng 6 năm 1980) in Saigon as soon as he was released.
(5). Hồ Hữu Tường. 41 Năm Làm Báo. Trí Đăng Saigon, 1972, 18.
(6).In  Vietnam, before 1945, we could write "Quốc" or "Quấc".
(7).Thu Trang: Nguyễn ái Quốc ở Pari (1917- 1923), Nxb. Chính trị quốc gia, Hà Nội, 2002,  , p. 95)
(8). Phan Thị Minh: “Thử xác định thêm năm nào Hồ Chí Minh đến Pháp và xuất xứ của danh hiệu Nguyễn Ái Quốc”, trong Thu Trang: Nguyễn Ái Quốc tại Paris (1917-1923), Sđd, tr. 422-423.

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